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Leaders In Neuroscience

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48. RAYMOND D. ADAMS, MD interviewed by George Ojemann, MD (1989). Dr. Adams recounts his training with many of the great individuals in the early field of neurosurgery, neurophysiology, psychiatry and psychology. He details his shifts in interest over his career from nutritional effects on the neurology of man to muscle disease to the prevention of mental retardation.
71. ADELOLA ADELOYE, MD interviewed by A. Earl Walker, MD (1991). Dr. Adeloye, the most senior neurosurgeon in Nigeria, provides an insight of the notable neurosurgeons and neurologists that he trained with in the United Kingdom. He furnishes information on how neurosurgery in Nigeria has changed; the high incidence of pediatric tumors; and head trauma during the civil war in his country.
130. EBEN ALEXANDER, Jr., MD interviewed by Jack Kushner, MD (1994). This interview was filmed as part of the celebration of Dr. Alexander's 80th birthday. He describes his training and interests. Dr. Alexander has benefitted from training with Ingraham, Matson, McKenzie, Drake and Eisenhardt. He describes performing neurosurgery while in the Army in evacuation hospitals in the Pacific. Dr. Alexander documents his history at Bowman Gray.
100. ORLANDO ANDY, MD interviewed by A. Earl Walker, MD (1992). Dr. Andy, Professor Emeritus of the Department of Neurosurgery, University of Mississippi Medical Center, discusses his associations with many pioneers in the field - Drs. Bailey, both Gibbs, Lichtenstein, Murphey and Semmes. He talks about his special interest in complex partial seizures and tracing the propagation of seizures from one point to another. Dr. Andy is also questioned about his involvement with the "mind modification" controversy of the 1950s.
91. PROFESSOR ANNA A. ARTARYAN, MD interviewed by Professor Leonid B. Likhterman, MD (1991). Dr. Artaryan, Chairman of Pediatric Neurosurgery at All-Union Post-Graduate Medical Institute in Moscow, discusses her work on children with tumors of the cerebellum and her interests in working with children with head trauma. She provides information on the development of pediatric neurosurgery in Russia and her hopes for the future of the subspecialty.
57. JULIUS AXELROD, PhD interviewed by Robert Kanigel (1990). A biographical interview with dialogue on Dr. Axelrod's work in psychopharmacology and neuropharmacology.
80.ORVILLE T. BAILEY, MD interviewed by Hubert R. Catchpole, MD (1991). Dr. Bailey discusses his training in the 1930s and his research in neuropathology with Wilder Penfield; his work during World War II on the fractionation of blood plasma; gamma radiation research; how the development of electron microscopy opened a new era for neuropathology in the 1950s; his succession to Percival Bailey at the University of Illinois in 1959; and work at Rush University that began in 1977.
101. LOUIS BAKAY, MD interviewed by Alan J. Drinnan, DDS, MD (1992). Dr. Bakay is Professor and Chairman Emeritus of Neurosurgery at the State University of New York at Buffalo. He tells about his growing up in Hungary and working with the Red Cross during World War II. He traces his career from his residency at Massachusetts General Hospital through his chairmanship and retirement. His major interests have been the localization of brain tumors, head trauma and medical history. He provides anecdotes on his work for the American Museum of Natural Sciences doing shark brain research.
50. H. THOMAS BALLANTINE, MD interviewed by Joseph Madsen, MD (1989). Dr. Ballantine documents his experiences during World War II in the battle zone with non-transportable wounded; his pioneering work with ultrasound's effect on biological tissues; and stereotactic cingulotomy for chronic pain.
140.CARL GUSTAF BERNHARD, MD interviewed by Ladislau Steiner, MD (1995) Sponsored by Elekta Instruments, Inc. Dr. Bernhard is a neurophysiologist at the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, Sweden, a member of the Nobel Committee, and President of the Royal Swedish Academy of Science. He describes his work on the dynamics of the receptor fields in the retina and other research he has overseen during his career. Dr. Bernhard discusses how his work has crossed paths with many famous neuroscientists including Sherrington, Echols, Olivecrona, and Leksell.
125. CLAUDE BERTRAND, MD interviewed by Jules Hardy, MD (1993). Dr. Bertrand describes his training with Penfield at the Montreal Neurological Institute. He worked with soldiers with spinal and peripheral nerve injuries while in the Army during World War II. Dr. Bertrand discusses his work in epilepsy, visceral pain and pallidotomies for Parkinson's disease. The interview includes film clips of an operation for spasmodic torticollis and the denervation of the affected muscles. Dr. Bertrand discusses his work with Adson, Alexander, Cairns, Dandy, Ehni, MacCarty, Matson, Meacham, Mount, Pudenz, Spurling and Stookey.
117. ANDERS BJORKLUND, MD interviewed by Thomas B. Freeman, MD (1993). Dr. Bjorklund reviews briefly the history of fetal tissue transplantation. He describes research in the 1950s on dopamine deficiency and Parkinson's disease and difficulties experienced by researchers when animal models and experiments cannot be translated to humans. He recounts his studies of the hypothalamus; catecholamines and serotonin; the concept of cerebral regeneration and plasticity; and the ethics of fetal transplantation.
2. EDWIN BOLDREY, MD interviewed by W. Kemp Clark, MD (1988). Dr. Boldrey discusses his training with Howard Naffziger; neurosurgical manpower in California; his involvement with the ABNS's review of the first 2 years of practice after residency; and tells anecdotes about Drs. German and Matson.
102. LOUIS D. BOSHES, MD interviewed by James Stone, MD (1992). Dr. Boshes, Clinical Professor of Neurology, Emeritus, at the University of Illinois College of Medicine at Chicago, provides anecdotes of his associations with Drs. Davis, both Gibbs, Kanavel, Oldberg and Pollack. He talks about his work in the Navy during World War II and says that one of his greatest privileges was as an examiner for the ABNS after the war.
124.MARIO BROCK, MD interviewed by Edward R. Laws, Jr., MD (1993). Professor Brock recounts his studies in Germany with Tonnis and Schurmann and later in Zurich with Yasargil. He was appointed, at age 39, Professor and Chairman of the Freie Universitat Berlin. He refers to the development of neurosurgery in Germany; documents his work in the areas of stereotactic surgery, cerebral blood flow studies, intracranial pressure and spine surgery; and tells of the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 and the differences in neurosurgery between the former East and West Germanies.
4. PAUL BUCY, MD interviewed by Dr. George Tindall and Dr. Alan Fleischer (1981). Dr. Bucy was a Charter Member of the Harvey Cushing Society. Dr. Bucy describes the first meeting of the organization that became the Harvey Cushing Society; discusses how manpower was viewed in those days; the establishment of the ABNS; anticipation that future advances in neurosurgery will be as great or greater than what has already occurred.
69.MAX CHAMLIN, MD interviewed by Roy C. Selby, MD (1991). Dr. Chamlin is a neuroophthalmologist who worked with Dr. Leo Davidoff. He recounts the difficulties of becoming a doctor during the Depression and the many historical figures who taught at Bellevue Hospital Medical College (later NYU). He tells of the creation of Albert Einstein University. Dr. Chamlin shares many anecdotes on Dr. Davidoff's career and personal life.
84. JACOB CHANDY, MD interviewed by M. Sambasivan, MD (1991). Dr. Chandy provides stories of his life; the difficulties of acquiring an education in India; working in the oil fields of Arabia for money to pay for post-graduate studies; training in Bahrain, Philadelphia and at the Montreal Neurological Institute; and the development of his neurosurgical training program at the Christian Medical College in Vellore, India.
139. SHELLEY N. CHOU, MD, PhD interviewed by Edward L. Seljeskog, MD (1994) Sponsored by the Upjohn Company. Dr. Chou traces his career from China to the University of Utah to the University of Minnesota. He describes advances made in diagnostics used for pre-surgical location of tumors; the development of the neurosurgical department at University of Minnesota; many of the neuroscience personalities he has encountered; and his current role as Dean of the University of Minnesota Medical School.
5. W. KEMP CLARK, MD interviewed by Phillip Williams, MD (circa 1985). Dr. Clark describes the neurosurgeons he met during his training at the Neurosurgical Institute such as Sir Jeffrey Jefferson, Ted Scarff and Byron Stookey. He believes that the greatest advances to date in neurosurgery have been in the use of surgical microscopes and the field of aneurysm surgery.
67. RALPH B. CLOWARD, MD interviewed by Roy C. Selby, MD (1991). Dr. Cloward provides a remarkable account of his career and research; his role in Honolulu during World War II; the development of the tantalum anvil and punch for cranioplasty surgery; the "PLIF" operation; leprosy; hyperhydrosis palmaris; and prefontal lobotomy.
54. MILDRED CODDING interviewed by John Shillito, MD (1990). Ms. Codding discusses her training at Johns Hopkins and how she became Dr. Cushing's medical illustrator. She shares various sketches, photos and drawings and describes the operating room conditions during Dr. Cushing's surgeries. Ms. Codding also talks about working with Dr. Matson on the "Atlas of Neurosurgery" in the 1960s.
6. CUSHING'S 2000TH VERIFIED BRAIN TUMOR OPERATION, narrated by Dr. Richard Light (1981). April 15, 1931. Photographed and edited by Dr. Walter W. Boyd and Dr. Richard U. Light. Written and narrated by Dr. Richard U. Light. Copyright by Walter Willard Boyd, 1964.
7. LOYAL DAVIS, MD interviewed by W. Kemp Clark, MD (1981). Dr. Davis furnishes information on his internship at Cook County Hospital. He recounts his year with Dr. Cushing citing many anecdotes. He quotes Dr. Cushing, "the neurological surgeon should be his own neurologist."
8. RICHARD L. DeSAUSSURE, Jr., MD interviewed by James T. Robertson, MD (1988). Dr. DeSaussure describes his work with the AANS, CNS and ABNS. He talks about malpractice, changing patterns of practice, the Match Program and socioeconomic issues.
58. GIOVANNI DiCHIRO, MD interviewed by Alfred J. Luessenhop, MD (1990). A biographical discussion that includes Dr. DiChiro's accomplishments in the field of neuroradiology.
122. DONALD DOHN, MD interviewed by Bruce Sorensen, MD (1993). Dr. Dohn's decision to become a neurosurgeon stems from a course in neuroanatomy taught by Grant L. Rasmussen. He talks about the Cleveland Clinic and his residency with Dr. Gardner; recounts contributions to neurosurgery made by himself and Wallace Hamby; and documents the development of the modern neurosurgical ICU, neuroanesthesia and subspecialization.
110.VINKO DOLENC, MD interviewed by Peter McL. Black, MD (1992). Dr. Dolenc describes his early interest in the central nervous system and his first exposure to microsurgery in 1967. His substantial experience in peripheral nerve microsurgery led to his organizing the first Congress of Microperipheral Nerve Surgery in 1972. He provides information the difficulties of specialized surgery in countries without the high level of technology that is common in the United States.
85. ROBERT S. DOW, MD interviewed by Neal Barmack, MD (1991). Dr. Dow describes his education and well-known teachers. He talks about his life-long work on the physiology and pathology of the cerebellum, publishing a manuscript which likened the cerebellum to a living computer, epilepsy research, Parkinson's disease studies, Kuru Disease in New Guinea and the Robert S. Dow Neurological Institute. The interview contains film clips and photographs including Fulton, Bailey, Cooper and more.
145. CHARLES G. DRAKE, MD interviewed by Edward L. Seljeskog, MD (1995) Sponsored by the Upjohn Company. Dr. Drake describes his medical education at the University of Western Ontario, Yale, and University of Toronto. He describes his relationships with McKenzie, Botterell, Norlen, Cairns, and Pennybacker. He tells of the first surgical procedure in Canada that he performed, clipping an aneurysm, and Botterell's reaction. Dr. Drake goes in to detail about the development of neurosurgical programs in Canada; his international travels; and his work in the development of aneurysm surgery.
141.C. MILLER FISHER, MD interviewed by Louis R. Caplan, MD (1995) Sponsored by the Upjohn Company. Dr. Fisher describes his route to becoming a neuropathologist and his research in the diagnosis of cerebellar hemorrhage. As a surgeon in the Navy during World War II, his boat was sunk and he was a prisoner in Germany for 3 1/2 years. He describes his experiences as the medical officer for the POWs. After the war, he trained with Wilder Penfield and Raymond Adams. His work with Dr. Adams eventually led him to the Massachusetts General Hospital. He tells about attending a symposium in April 1974 where it was remarked that "neuropathology is passe" followed by the introduction of CT in August 1974 when neuropathologists were the only doctors able to initially interpret CT scans. He describes the MGH's stroke service and the development of the fellowship program there.
81. ELDON L. FOLTZ, MD and ROBERT H. PUDENZ, MD (1991). Drs. Pudenz and Foltz track the history of the surgical treatment of hydrocephalus through its pathophysiology, treatment and complications and discuss contemporary concepts in its management.
10. LYLE A. FRENCH, MD interviewed by Shelly N. Chou, MD (1988). Dr. French provides information on his work on peripheral nerves, brain tumors and edema. He says that teaching medical students and residents is the "greatest impact a person can have in on the future", and, "any educator lives on almost forever through his students".
11.J. GARBER GALBRAITH, MD interviewed by Phillip E. Williams, MD (circa 1985). Dr. Galbraith furnishes background on his training with Dr. Putnam. He has served as President of the Southern Neurosurgical Society and Chairman of the ABNS. He discusses what he considers the most impressive advances and biggest problems experienced by neurosurgeons.
12.W. JAMES GARDNER, MD interviewed by Donald F. Dohn, MD (1981). Dr. Gardner was a Charter Member of the Harvey Cushing Society. Dr. Gardner discusses his training in Philadelphia and his career at the Cleveland Clinic. He talks about his early research on subdural hematomas, dysraphic states (syringobulbia-syringomyelia), tic douloureux and hemifacial spasm due to an aberrant artery.
13. WILLIAM J. GERMAN, MD interviewed by Benjamin B. Whitcomb, MD (1981). Dr. German was a Charter Member of the Harvey Cushing Society. Dr. German recounts the development of the Harvey Cushing Society, the Society of Neurological Surgeons and the formation of the Cushing Collection and Library at Yale.
86. PHILIP GILDENBERG, MD interviewed by William Buchheit, MD (1991). Drs. Gildenberg and Buchheit discuss the careers and lives of E.A. Spiegel and Henry Wycis at Temple University and their contributions to the development of stereotactic surgery. Dr. Gildenberg marvels at Dr. Wycis' prophesies in the 1960s of the future uses of stereotaxis that have since come to pass. Also discussed is the beginning of the International Society of Research in Stereotactic Encephalography.
64.SIDNEY GOLDRING, MD interviewed by William S. Coxe, MD (1991). Dr. Goldring tells of his research interests and the neurosurgical staff and residents over the years at Washington University in St. Louis. Dr. Goldring's interest in health care reform at a national level is discussed and his previous roles with the Journal of Neurosurgery, as a chairman of neurosurgery and as past president of the AANS.
105.NICHOLAS GOTTEN, MD and C. DOUGLAS HAWKES, MD in discussion with A. Roy Tyrer, MD (1992). Dr. Gotten met Dr. Hawkes while in the Navy. At the conclusion of World War II, they formed the Neurosurgical Group of Memphis. They discuss how each benefited from their involvement in the Harvey Cushing Society, the American College of Surgeons and other national organizations. The development of the training program at Methodist Hospital in Memphis is reviewed along with insights on early treatments and equipment.
14.JOHN GREEN, MD interviewed by W. Kemp Clark, MD (1988). Dr. Green provides information on his involvement in the development of the Barrow Neurological Institute in Phoenix and its residency program. He talks about working with Drs. Bailey, Bucy, Schwartz, Walker and Ward.
142.TORGNEY GREITZ, MD, PhD interviewed by Ladislau Steiner, MD (1995) Sponsored by Elekta Instruments, Inc. Dr. Greitz is Professor Emeritus of Neuroradiology at the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, Sweden. He describes his early ambition to become a painter which translated into aspirations in plastic surgery which changed to neuroradiology during his residency when he worked with Olivecrona, considered "Europe's Cushing". Dr. Greitz tells of his time spent with Schwartz and Chou in the US; his work on cerebral blood flow studies; the use of CT for stereotactic procedures; and the development of a brain atlas. He also describes his friendship and work with Leksell.
107. ROBERT L. GRUBB, MD interviewed by Howard Kaufmann, MD (1992). Dr. Grubb's training and career origins are discussed. He documents his medical experiences in Viet Nam and his research training with subsequent technique and diagnostic developments. The evolution of PET scanning is extensively discussed.
52.WALLACE B. HAMBY, MD interviewed by Donald F. Dohn, MD (1989). Dr. Hamby provides information on how the "Cleveland Clinic Disaster" affected his training and career as a neurosurgeon. He documents his work on the classification of brain tumors; pioneering neurosurgery in Buffalo in 1934; the innovation of operating on a patient who is in a seated position; and how non-university-affiliated neurosurgeons found educational opportunities in the early days of neurosurgery prior to the expansion of AANS meetings.
87.JULES HARDY, MD interviewed by Roy C. Selby, MD (1991). Dr. Hardy describes his classical education and discusses microelectrodes, electrocoagulation, leucotomes, evoked potentials and electrical monitoring of electrode placement. He published "An Atlas of Transphenoidal Hypophysectomy and Pituitary Surgery" and states that he has tried but could not improve Cushing's approach to transphenoidal hypophysectomy. This video includes footage of an acromegaly tumor patient.
45.ROBERT HEATH, MD interviewed by Wallace K. Tomlinson, MD (1989). Dr. Heath discusses his research career which examined the relationship between the brain and the mind; describes early experience with patients who received deep brain implant electrodes; and the evolution of using a stereotactic method of deep brain electrode implantation.
112.FRANCIS X. HERR interviewed by Roy Black and Merwyn Bagan, MD (1993). Mr. Herr, Manager of Professional Services at Codman & Shurtleff, guides a walking tour of the historical instrument archives at the Codman & Shurtleff facility in Randolph, MA.
46.JOHN HOLTER, DSc interviewed by John M. Thompson, MD (1989). Dr. Thompson gives a history of the treatment of hydrocephalus prior to Dr. Holter's introduction of the Holter Shunt. Dr. Holter's son was born in 1955 with hydrocephalus. He explains how he utilized his mechanical expertise to develop a valve for neurosurgeons to use to help hydrocephalic patients.
135.JOHN HOLTER, DSc interviewed by John M. Thompson, MD (1994) Sponsored by the Upjohn Company. Drs. Holter and Thompson discuss the history of the treatment of hydrocephalus and the subsequent improvements that took place when Dr. Holter (an engineer) invented the first shunt in the 1950s for the treatment of his own child who was born with hydrocephalus.
82.WILLIAM F. HOUSE, MD interviewed by William Hitselberger, MD (1991). Dr. House (trained as both a dentist and otologist) describes the early days of microsurgery, bipolar coagulation, the development of procedures for acoustic neurinoma and the restoration of hearing in people with otosclerosis; and hearing preservation while removing facial tumors.
131. DAVID HUBEL, MD interviewed by Roy C. Selby, MD (1994). Dr. Hubel describes his training which included work with Cone, Elvidge, Jasper and Penfield. He discusses studies of microelectrode recordings of single cortical neurons, EEG, and sleep. He describes collaboration with Thorsen Wiesel that led to them winning a Nobel Prize in 1981 for their work regarding visual physiology and the effects of visual deprivation.
108.WILLIAM E. HUNT, MD interviewed by Robert B. King, MD (1992). Dr. Hunt details his contributions to the management of aneurysms are extensively discussed as well as the "Hunt Classification" of patients with aneurysms. "Just because you know how to cut doesn't mean that that's the first thing to do."
137.RUTH KERR JAKOBY, MD, FACS, JD interviewed by Gail Rosseau, MD (1994) Sponsored by the Upjohn Company. Dr. Jakoby describes her journey to becoming the first board certified female neurosurgeon in the United States. She highlights the challenges of raising a family and managing a practice. She describes her work as Chief of the Spinal Cord Injury Service at the VA in Houston and efforts to increase public awareness of the seriousness of para- and quadriplegia. Dr. Jakoby discusses her studies for the law degree she received from Antioch Law School.
133.JOHN JANE, MD interviewed by Edward R. Laws, Jr., MD (available mid-1994). Dr. Jane documents his early research on auditory discrimination in cats. He details training undertaken with Diamond, Evans, Hebb, McKissock, Nulsen, Oldberg, Penfield and Rasmussen. He describes his work at University of Virginia and the training program he has developed.
111.HERBERT H. JASPER, MD interviewed by Andre Olivier, MD (1993). Dr. Jasper presents a fascinating overview of his career, highlighting his interest in electrophysiology and the development of the EEG. He talks about his research in France, at Brown University and with Wilder Penfield at the Montreal Neurological Institute.
121. BRYAN JENNETT, MD interviewed by C. Douglas Miller, MD (1993). Professor Jennett furnishes an interesting history of the University of Glasgow and his career path. He provides glimpses of his relationships with Cairns, French, Johnson and Magoun. He discusses his research on intracranial pressure, neuroanesthesia, halothane, cerebral blood flow studies and clinical states of head trauma victims. Professor Jennett gives information on the development of the Glasgow Coma Scale and its predictive value.
15.EDGAR A. KAHN, MD interviewed by Drs. McGillicuddy and Kindt (1981). Dr. Kahn was a Charter Member of the Harvey Cushing Society. Dr. Kahn recounts what medical training was like when there was no suction, no Bovie, no IVs and no blood transfusions. He was associated with Max Peet for 25 years and was present at Harvey Cushing's 70th birthday party. He describes his many acquaintances of neurosurgical pioneers and his studies at Queens Square with Sir Arnold Carmichael and Charles Symonds.
59.SEYMOUR KETY, MD interviewed by Ayub Ommaya, MD (1990). Discussion is centered on Dr. Kety's achievements in the field of cerebral blood flow studies and metabolism in health and disease.
66. ROBERT B. KING, MD interviewed by Robert G. Ojemann, MD (1991). Dr. King discusses his research experience at Washington University in St. Louis and the development of the training program at State University of New York in Syracuse. He relates his involvement in neurosurgery at the national level in the ABNS, ABMS and as past president of the AANS. Dr. King recounts his role in the evolution of the Research Foundation of the AANS and discusses specialization and recertification issues.
72. YORVAN KIRYABWIRE, MD interviewed by Adelola Adeloya, MD (1991). Dr. Kiryabwire is a neurosurgeon in Kampala, Uganda. He discusses missile injuries and spinal cord tumor cases he sees; problems experienced when nationals do not return to practice in Uganda after being trained in Europe or North America. He provides an interesting view of the increasing numbers of AIDS patients struck with paraplegia and requiring the services of a neurosurgeon; and the difficulties his hospital experiences due to the country's economy and the lack of basic facilities including medications and isotopes.
92.PROFESSOR ALEXANDER N. KONOVALOV, MD interviewed by Drs. Roy C. Selby and Robert Spetzler (1991). Professor Konovalov, Director of the Burdenko Neurosurgical Institute in Moscow, talks about how medical school and specialty training are provided in the USSR and his own training. He talks extensively about research at the Burdenko Institute and neurosurgical patient care in the USSR.
106.THEODORE KURZE, MD interviewed by Peter J. Jannetta, MD (1992). Dr. Kurze describes his path to becoming a neurosurgeon. He presents a technical discussion on the development of the surgical microscope and provides a demonstration using the first surgical microscope (now housed in the AANS Archives) developed by Zeiss for neurosurgery.
75. JOHN H. LAWRENCE, MD interviewed by Byron C. Pevehouse, MD (1991). Dr. Lawrence, considered the "Father of Nuclear Medicine", relates his work with his physicist brother, Ernest Lawrence, at Berkley. He talks about the development of radiation therapy; experiments that lead to the development of radioisotope studies; his pioneering work in the field of radiation protection; and his work on the Manhattan Project.
116.JACQUES LEBEAU, MD interviewed by Roy C. Selby, MD (1993). Dr. LeBeau relates his decision to enter medicine and the influence of de Martel and Vincent. Dr. LeBeau discusses his work during World War II with the British Army, serving in evacuation hospitals. During the War, he met Cairns, DeGaulle, Flemming, Wright and has had associations with Cushing, Bailey and Bucy, del Rio Hortega, Eysenck, Falconer, Guillaume, Houdart, Mettler, Monnet, Olivecrona, Roussy and Sauerbruch. Dr. LeBeau describes his interest in psychosurgery.
74.F. LAURENCE LEVY, MD interviewed by Adelola Adeloya, MD (1991). Dr. Levy, a neurosurgeon in Harare, Zimbabwe, tells of training with Wilder Penfield. He worked as a ship's doctor, seeing local patients while in port. His decision to open a practice in 1956 when he became the only neurosurgeon between Johannesburg and Cairo. He describes the differences in cases seen in Africa compared to Europe and North America; the difficulties of helping people who live great distances from the medical facilities; his efforts to become recertified by the Royal College of Surgeons and taking the Neurosurgical Review Course; and Africa's need for more general surgeons with exposure to neurosurgical technique.
16. RICHARD U. LIGHT, MD interviewed by Roy C. Selby, MD (1981). Dr. Light recounts the story of why he postponed entry to Dr. Cushing's program for one year to go through Army flying school. He describes in great detail Dr. Cushing's demeanor both as a surgeon and as a person.
93. PROFESSOR LEONID B. LIKHTERMAN, MD interviewed by Bolislad Likhterman, MD and Roy C. Selby, MD (1991). Professor Likhterman is Chief Neurologist at the Burdenko Neurosurgical Institute in Moscow. He discusses his training and interest in head trauma including the development of a data bank on head injury with information from all over the USSR. Professor Likhterman discusses the centralization of specialists in USSR and getting patients from remote sections of the country to the three main neurosurgical institutes.
136.ROBERT B. LIVINGSTON, MD interviewed by A. Earl Walker, MD (1994) Sponsored by the Upjohn Company. Dr. Livingston provides an extensive view of his illustrious career including spent time working with John Fulton; eye movement in cats studies in Zurich with Nobel Prize winner Dr. Hess; he describes the training program he had developed including computerized brain images for 3-dimensional neuroanatomy training; he holds the position of scientific advisor to the Dalai Lama; and he describes his personal feelings on the state of the world.
--FRIEDRICH LOEW, MD is in a joint interview with Kurt Schurmann and Madjid Sammi See detailed interview information with interview #103 under Kurt Schurmann.
17. COLLIN S. MacCARTY, MD interviewed by Edward R. Laws, MD (1988). As a boy, Dr. MacCarty helped to prepare frozen sections for his father who was head of surgical pathology at the Mayo Clinic. His interest in neurosurgery came when he was assigned during his senior year of medical school to Dandy's "brain tumor team". He describes in detail Dandy's operating room demeanor, where the only light was a bulb on Dandy's head. After his residency with Adson, Dr. MacCarty's interests were in spinal cord resection for malignant glioma and gliomas of the brain.
60.PAUL MacLEAN, MD interviewed by Ayub Ommaya, MD (1990). Dr. MacLean documents his work with normal and abnormal limbic systems and the evolutionary development of the brain.
18. H.W. MAGOUN, PhD introduced by James A. Campbell, MD (1988). Dr. Magoun describes his research in stereotactic surgery which included design/production of stereotactic devices and the development of an atlas of the cat brain. He describes the creation of the Brain Research Institute at UCLA and his appointment as chairman of an IBRO section on the history of the brain. He recounts work done with Bailey, John French, McCulloch and von Bonin.
53.VERNON MARK, MD and WILLIAM SWEET, MD (1990). Drs. Mark and Sweet discuss stereotactic surgery, seizure disorders, temporal lobe epilepsy, abnormal aggression. Dr. Mark provides his recollection of his residency and research under Dr. Sweet and attempts to make a whole brain atlas. Also see Dr. Sweet's individual interview, #38 .
19.ANTONIO MARQUES, MD interviewed by W. Kemp Clark, MD (1989). Dr. Marques was the first neurosurgeon in Portugal. He studied with Walter Dandy in 1943. He recounts diagnosing and operating on Salazar for a chronic subdural hematoma in 1968. Dr. Marques tells of elected to the Portuguese Academy of Science and talks about meeting Sir Geoffrey Jefferson and Norman Dott.
70.AGNES MARSHALL, RN interviewed by Paul C. Bucy, MD (1991). Ms. Marshall provides information on the establishment of the first neuroscience nurse training program; steps that were taken to form the AANN; the evolution of the Journal of Neurological Nursing; and the founding of the World Federation of Neurosurgical Nurses. Ms. Marshall describes the assistance WFNN provides nurses in setting standards to identify brain death in countries where cultural patterns provide resistance.
20.FRANK H. MAYFIELD, MD interviewed by John M. Tew, Jr., MD (1981). Dr. Mayfield provides his recollection of the history of the formulation of the Society of Neurological Surgeons and the Harvey Cushing Society and development of the AANS as the spokesman for organized neurosurgery.
51.WILLIAM W. McKINNEY, MD (1989). Dr. McKinney describes his training and journey to becoming a neurosurgeon; his initial experimentation with cerebral arteriography; leucotomy for certain psychoses; and the development of his stereotactic instrument in 1958.
21. WILLIAM F. MEACHAM, MD interviewed by Cully A. Cobb, Jr., MD (1988). Dr. Meacham describes his path to Vanderbilt and the many influential individuals who helped him during this career. He and Dr. Cobb relate stories of how Pilcher trained, of his great skill, and his personality. They relate how Pilcher operated for aneurysms successfully, without arteriography.
55.RUSSELL MEYERS, MD interviewed by Roy C. Selby, MD (1990). Dr. Meyers provides background on his training; work at Bellevue attempting to bridge the gap between psychiatry and neurology; research on the affects of increased intracranial pressure; the evolution of treatments for abnormal movement disorders; and the development of the stereotactic guide.
94. PROFESSOR GURAM O. MJAVANADZE, MD interviewed by Bolislad Likhterman, MD (1991). Professor Mjavanadze is Senior Investigator at the Burdenko Neurosurgical Institute in Moscow. He furnishes information on his training at the Burdenko as a pediatric neurosurgeon. He discusses professional relationships that have allowed an exchange of students and residents between the USSR and the USA and the differences in neurosurgery in the two countries.
138.THOMAS P. MORLEY, MD (1994) Sponsored by the Upjohn Company. Dr. Morley describes his residency with Sir Geoffrey Jefferson and his establishment of a practice in Canada. He describes several Canadian neuroscientists including McKenzie, Penfield, Botterell, Turnbull, Boldrey, Evans, Jasper, and Drake. He talks about the fundamental differences between the training programs in Toronto and Montreal and delves into political factors involved in Canadian medicine.
22.LESTER A. MOUNT, MD interviewed by Phillip E. Williams, MD (circa 1985). Dr. Mount documents his training and decision to become a neurosurgeon. He discusses the influences of Crawford, Dandy, Elsberg, Pool and Stookey and provides insight on his work with the USS Hope.
113.VERNON B. MOUNTCASTLE, MD interviewed by George B. Udvarhelyi, MD (1993). Dr. Mountcastle recounts getting an education during the Depression and his acceptance at Johns Hopkins Medical School. He discusses his admiration of his professors and desire to train in neurosurgery with Dandy (who died before Mountcastle could enter the program). Dr. Mountcastle describes his work with Phillip Bard in neurophysiology and electrophysiology and the revolution in neurophysiology that came with the development of single unit analysis.
23. FRANCES MURPHEY, MD interviewed by James T. Robertson, MD (1988). Dr. Murphey was the last medical student to assist Cushing in surgery. He discusses being trained by Bailey and Bucy, Buchanan, Cushing, Enders, Walker and Zinsser and later working with Betz, Fox, Gurdjian and Semmes. Bucy recommended him to Semmes who trained him as his first associate which lead to the establishment of the Semmes-Murphey Clinic. Dr. Murphey talks about the Cleveland Clinic fire; his interest in aneurysms and carotid artery disease; and his discovery of herniated cervical discs. He also documents the formation of the Harvey Cushing Society and his role in the development of "breakfast seminars".
56.WALLE H.J. NAUTA, MD interviewed by Edward Tarlov, MD (1990). Dr. Nauta weaves the details of his early career into a background of university life during World War II in Nazi occupied Holland. He describes how the needs of the military affected supplies needed to work in an anatomy laboratory and tells of the development of the Nauta Technique of staining degenerating fibers.
24.GUY L. ODOM, MD interviewed by George T. Tindall, MD (1981). Dr. Odom provides great detail of training at the Montreal Neurological Institute with Penfield and Cone. He describes his practice with Woodhall and his impressions of many of the early neurosurgeons including Bucy, Davidoff, Davis, Horrax, Naffziger, Ray and Semmes.
65.ROBERT G. OJEMANN, MD interviewed by Roberto Heros, MD (1991). Dr. Ojemann describes his research and training done at Massachusetts General Hospital and relates his interests in the development of the specialty. He also talks about training programs and his involvement in the development of the Cushing Stamp.
25. ERIC OLDBERG, MD interviewed by Roy C. Selby, MD (1981). Dr. Oldberg was a Charter Member of the Harvey Cushing Society. Dr. Oldberg was the last of Cushing's residents who was trained solo. He recounts a typical day for Dr. Cushing and provide an interesting review of the Cushing-Dandy rivalry.
26.IRVINE H. PAGE, MD interviewed by Edward Froehlich, MD (1988). Dr. Page describes his education leading to a internship at Bellevue and Presbyterian Hospitals in New York and his early practice at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute fur Psychiatrie in Munich where he started the Department of Brain Chemistry. As it became apparent that there would be a World War II, Dr. Page and his family returned to the United States to the Rockefellar Institute where he began studies on arteriosclerosis, stroke and hypertension. He discusses his discovery of angiotensin and his work at the Cleveland Clinic where he found serotonin in the brain.
123.SANFORD PALAY, MD interviewed by G.E. "Erik" Erikson, MD (1993). Dr. Palay documents his pioneer work to demonstrate the ultrastructure of synapse with the electron microscope in 1953. He discusses work with Bodian, Bunting, Claude, de No, Ernst, Enescou, Kety, Kressler and Robert Livingston.
27.DWIGHT PARKINSON, MD interviewed by Jock McBeath, MD (1988). As an undergraduate, Dr. Parkinson was exposed to the teachings of Cone, Elvidge and Penfield at the Montreal Neurological Institute. He describes residency at the Mayo Clinic with Adson and discusses Child, Craig, Dott and Love and their work. He provides information on his research on the anatomy of the cavernous sinus and first description of the inferior hypophyseal artery, tentoral artery, dorsal meningeal artery and meningohypophyseal artery and his studies on cerebral concussion.
95.PROFESSOR EMIL PASZTOR, MD interviewed by Roy C. Selby, MD (1991). Professor Pasztor, Emeritus Professor of Neurosurgery at the University of Budapest, Hungary, provides a fascinating account of obtaining a medical education following World War II when many of the university laboratories in Budapest had been destroyed. Professor Pasztor discusses his career as the Director of the Neurosurgical Institute of Budapest and neurosurgical services provided in Hungary.
68.RUSSEL PATTERSON, MD interviewed by Julian Hoff, MD (1991). Dr. Patterson explains how he became interested in medical politics at a national level; being trained the "craft" of surgery; his research on filters used in ultrasound; the benefits of residents experiencing training in different institutions; and the restraint of personal freedoms.
115. BERNARD PERTUISET, MD interviewed by Roy C. Selby, MD (1993). Professor Pertuiset describes the trials of obtaining a medical education and his medical services provided, during World War II. He recounts his experiences with Alazouanine, Austin, Cone, du Taillis, Elvidge, Jasper and Penfield. He documents his work in surgery of aneurysms, surgical microscopy and his philosophy of aneurysm surgery and its timing. Dr. Pertuiset furnishes background on neurosurgical training and the history of neurosurgery in France.
134.BYRON C. PEVEHOUSE, MD interviewed by Julian T. Hoff MD (1994). Sponsored by the Upjohn Company. Dr. Pevehouse describes his entry into the world of socio-economics during his residency. He explains that his involvement in coding and reimbursement for professional services was a coincidence, starting with a stack of charts and a deadline. Dr. Pevehouse discusses his involvement in the development of the Match Program and working with California state legislature writing a brain death law in the 1970s. He describes his association with Ed Boldrey.
143.URBAN PONTEN, MD, PhD interviewed by Ladislau Steiner, MD (1995) Sponsored by Elekta Instruments, Inc. Dr. Ponten is Chairman Emeritus of Neurosurgery at the Uppsala University Hospital in Uppsala, Sweden. He describes his work with Olivecrona, Norlen, Leksell, and Langfitt. He provides historical backgrounds of neuroscience educators and the universities in Sweden. He has a great interest in interventional radiology, intracranial dynamics, and what he considers what is most important in the care of the neurosurgical patient - diagnosis, surgery, and neurointensive care.
28.LAWRENCE J. POOL, MD interviewed by W. Kemp Clark, MD (1988). Dr. Pool describes his early career covering many hospitals in and near New York City. He talks about neuroradiology in the 1930s when Dyke was one of only three neuroradiologists practicing in the USA. He talks about temporary clips for aneurysm surgeries, the development of the surgical microscope in 1961, and the use of a "myeloscope". Dr. Pool also describes Cushing's 70th birthday party in 1939.
119.KARL PRIBRAM, MD interviewed by Howard Kaufman, MD (1993). Dr. Pribram was Paul Bucy's first resident. He describes working with and for Bucy, Gerard, Lyerly, Mettler, Pool, Ransohoff and Semmes. Dr. Pribram was director of the Yerkes Primate Center at Yale and talks about attempting to replicate Fulton's lobotomy results on chimpanzees. He tells of his interest in the concept of holographic memory and visual perception; the electrophysiology of the brain using three-dimensional Gabor functions; and "Lee Groups".
144. MARCUS E. RAICHLE, MD interviewed by Sidney Goldring, MD (1995) Sponsored by the Upjohn Company. Dr. Raichle describes his early interest in medicine ignited by a course in zoology taught by Dixie Lee Ray. He describes working with Fred Plum and Bronson Ray and provides anecdotes about them. Dr. Raichle reviews his contributions to neuroscience through his early oxygen metabolism studies; cyclotron produced radiopharmaceuticals; the development of PET scanning through collaboration between the University of Washington and Brookhaven National Laboratories; and his research on language processing utilizing PET imaging.
120. BRIGADIER RAMAMURTHI, MD interviewed by P. C. Ramakrishna (1993). Dr. Ramamurthi reviews the story of medicine and neurosurgery in India. He describes his training and friendships with Adson, Dott, Jefferson, Olivecrona, Penfield, Rowbotham, Tonnis, Walker, Walsh and Williams. Dr. Ramamurthi talks about his interests in surgical microscopy, stereotactic surgery and lowering mortality rates, and his research on yoga and brain activity.
88.ROBERT RAND, MD interviewed by Ulrich Batzdorf, MD (1991). Dr. Rand discusses his father, Carl Rand, and describes experimentation with methods to alleviate arm pain on soldiers during the Korean War. He describes the development of cryosurgery, stereotactic surgery, usage of deep brain implant electrodes for controlling epilepsy and radiosurgery. He also discusses inventing a super-conducting magnet for aneurysm surgery with a physicist at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena.
29.BRONSON S. RAY, MD interviewed by Russel H. Patterson, Jr., MD (1981). Loyal Davis sent Dr. Ray to study with Dr. Cushing in 1930. Dr. Ray documents his experiences as a Cushing resident regarding rounds, dressings, surgeries, ventriculograms and other routines. He describes many aspects of Dr. Cushing's life -- the occasional social events spent with him and the one-month vacations Cushing took alone to Europe each year.
30.HUGO RIZZOLI, MD interviewed by Byron C. Pevehouse, MD (1988). Dr. Rizzoli describes his training which included being the Harvey Cushing Fellow at the Hunterian Lab and training with Dandy at Johns Hopkins. He recounts lore of the "feud" between Drs. Cushing and Dandy. Dr. Rizzoli talks about his career, famous people he dealt with including Spurling, Woodhall, Watts and Freeman.
96.PROFESSOR ANDREI P. ROMODANOV, MD interviewed by Robert White, MD (1991). Professor Romodanov, Director of the Kiev Neurosurgical Institute, documents his experiences as a surgeon during the "Great Patriotic War". Professor Romodanov explains how he created his staff from doctors devoted to neurosurgery and the many interesting trends in research that have developed at the Institute.
31.DANIEL RUGE, MD interviewed by Drs. Williams and Neblett (1988). Dr. Ruge describes his training with Kanavel and his eventual practice with Davis and Rich in Chicago. In 1976, he was assigned as Deputy Director of the VA Spinal Cord Injury Service. He was appointed as President Reagan's personal physician shortly after the election and details his duties in this position. He provides a medical overview of the 1981 assassination attempt.
--PROFESSOR MADJID SAMMI, MD was jointly interviewed with Kurt Schumann and Friedrich Loew. See detail of the interview in 103. Kurt Schurmann.
73.GERISHOM SANDE, MD interviewed by Adelola Adeloya, MD (1991). Dr. Sande is a neurosurgeon in Nairobi, Kenya. He furnishes information on the civil war in Nairobi providing opportunities for management of head trauma; the government's work to reduce spinal cord and head injuries due to traffic accidents; having little time for research due to heavy clinical responsibilities; and how the discovery of oil in Kenya will allow the country and medicine there to develop in a manner similar to the Western World.
32.KEIJI SANO, MD interviewed by Phillip E. Williams, MD (circa 1985). Dr. Sano describes his training in the United States and return to Tokyo University in 1962. He held the first Chair of Neurosurgery in Japan. He recounts visits with Bailey, Boldrey, Naffziger and Penfield. He discusses the introduction of the surgical microscope and CT scanning in Japan and his experiences with patients with aneurysms, cerebrovascular disease and spinal cord tumors.
33.RICHARD C. SCHNEIDER, MD interviewed by Phillip E. Williams, MD (circa 1985). After serving in the Army during World War II, Dr. Schneider entered neurosurgical training under Max Peet and Edgar Kahn. He describes Max Peet's surgical prowess and affinity for performing operations for tic douloureux. He discusses his work with cordotomy, surgery for epilepsy and the use of thorotrast by Dr. Kahn for brain abscess.
103.PROFESSOR KURT SCHURMANN, MD, PROFESSOR FRIEDRICH LOEW, MD and PROFESSOR MADJID SAMMI, MD (1992). Three neurosurgeons from Germany discuss the history of neurosurgery in that country from about 1887 to the present and their own roles in this development. Dr. Schurmann is Professor Emeritus at the Neurosurgical Clinic the University of Mainz. Dr. Loew is Professor Emeritus at the Neurosurgical Clinic at Homburg/Saar. Dr. Sammi is at the Medical School of Hannover at the Nordstadt Hospital.
34. HENRY G. SCHWARTZ, MD interviewed by Sidney Goldring, MD (1988). Dr. Schwartz describes his education and important instructors -- which included Drs. Breslau, Dandy, Foerster, Hines, Lewis, MacCallum, Welch and Wislocki -- and his subsequent appointment to Washington University in St. Louis.
35.R. EUSTACE SEMMES, MD interviewed by James T. Robertson, MD (1988). Dr. Semmes was a Charter Member of the Harvey Cushing Society. Dr. Semmes was one of the founding members of the Harvey Cushing Society. He was present with Dr. Dandy when the first ventriculogram was performed. He documents developing the partial laminectomy for lumbar disc surgery in 1939; relates the beginnings of the Baptist Medical Center; his associations with Drs. Crutchfield, DeSaussure, de Martel and Elsberg; and the Speed of Campbell Orthopedic Clinic.
109. FRANK P. SMITH, MD interviewed by Charles Wilson, MD (1992). Dr. Smith describes his training and association with Howard Naffziger. He furnishes a detailed depiction of his long-time friend, the Harvey Cushing Society's first president, William P. Van Wagenen. Dr. Smith reads many letters between Dr. Van Wagenen and Dr. Cushing to characterize their personalities. Dr. Van Wagenen's efforts to set up the Van Wagenen Fellowship are detailed as well as Mrs. Van Wagenen's generosity at continuing to support the Fellowship.
61.LOUIS SOKOLOFF, MD interviewed by Ayub Ommaya, MD (1990). Dr. Sokoloff discusses his accomplishments in the research of cerebral blood flow studies and metabolism in health and disease.
129.LADISLAU STEINER, MD interviewed by Edward R. Laws, Jr., MD (1994). Dr. Steiner, now practicing at the University of Virginia, provides an extensive overview of his work with Olivecrona and background on Leksell's development of the gamma knife. Dr. Steiner discusses stereotactic surgery, arteriovenous malformations, acoustic neurinomas, and surgeries for pain and Parkinson's Disease.
83. W. EUGENE STERN, MD interviewed by Ulrich Batzdorf, MD (1991). Dr. Stern describes his training with Howard Naffziger and A. Earl Walker. He provides information on his military background in a peripheral nerve injury convalescent center; the beginning (in 1951) and evolution of the neurosurgical program at the University of California/Los Angeles; his views on research during residency to develop a discipline of thinking; and teaching residents medical ethics.
118.OSCAR SUGAR, MD interviewed by James Stone, MD (1993). Dr. Sugar gives an overview of his associations with Bailey and Bucy, Cloward, Freeman and Watts, Gerard, Kluver, Oldberg and von Bonin. While in the Air Force, Dr. Sugar instructed air crews on the dangers of and means to prevent oxygen deprivation and evaluated and treated military personnel suffering psychological problems from combat and lack of combat. He discusses work on the cortex and epilepsy; the discovery of the secondary motor areas; invention of angiography and development of percutaneous vertebral angiography; aneurysm and epilepsy surgeries.
36.THORALF M. SUNDT, Jr., MD interviewed by Edward R. Laws, MD (circa 1985). Dr. Sundt discusses his decision to enter neurosurgery; the origins of several neurosurgical societies; research leading to the development of the clip graft; hemodilution research; early aneurysm surgical techniques; the development of EEG monitoring during surgery; arterial shunts; the introduction of surgical microscopes; vein patching for carotid artery disease; new aneurysm clips; the origin of dual arterio-venous malformations; and comments about training and research lab exposure.
38. WILLIAM H. SWEET, MD interviewed by Robert G. Ojemann, MD (1989). Dr. Sweet's road to becoming a neurosurgeon included training in classical piano, aviation, physiology, psychiatry and internal medicine. He discusses work with Sherrington, White, Mixter, Hobson, Bailey, Bucy, Walker, Carmichael, Cairns, Bennett, Heyl and Jefferson. Dr. Sweet performed early radioisotope studies of blood exchanges, stereotactic surgery and hypothermia for arteriovenous malformations. Also see #53, the joint interview of Dr. Sweet with Vernon Mark.
37.LINDSAY SYMON, MD interviewed by W. Kemp Clark, MD (1988). Dr. Symon documents his research in cerebral metabolism and cerebral blood flow studies at Queens Square in England and later of the penumbra of ischemic lesions of the brain. He talks about his training by Logue and about McKissock. Dr. Symon has particular interests in parasellar tumors, acoustic neurinomas and aneurysms.
97.LINDSAY SYMON, MD interviewed by Russel Patterson, MD (1991). In this second interview, Dr. Symon details his medical school training that was followed by mandatory military service. Professor Symon describes medical school and specialty training through an apprenticeship system with Valentine. He relates his many research opportunities in several laboratories and his role as supervisor of research at Queens Square.
128.JEAN TALAIRACH, MD interviewed by Mark Rayport, MD (1994). (Note: This interview is in French. A translated version will be available in the future.) Dr. Talairach recounts his training and the development of neurosurgery at l'Hopital Ste. Anne, Paris by Professor Marcel David. Dr. Talairach relates his work in stereotactic studies/surgery primarily for epilepsy. He describes his co-development of EEG depth electrode studies.
76.JUAN M. TAVERAS, MD interviewed by Robert G. Ojemann, MD (1991). Dr. Taveras, considered the "Father of Neuroradiology in America", tracks the advances in neuroradiology from the time that Dandy first used air as a contrast medium, to the development of myelography and cerebral angiography, through ultrasound and the introduction of CT Scans and magnetic resonance imaging. He furnishes information on the development of his training program at Massachusetts General Hospital in the 1950s and the founding of the American Society of Neuroradiology in 1962.
39. OWSEI TEMKIN, MD interviewed by Lloyd G. Stevenson, MD (1988). Dr. Temkin describes his interest in the history of surgical intervention for epilepsy and the development of teaching medical history to medical students. He describes lectures by Sigerist and Welch's interest in teaching medical history. Dr. Temkin provides an interesting overview early physicians and philosophers including Socrates and Plato, and states that "One should not believe what anyone else tells one, or even what oneself thinks".
89.EDWIN TODD, MD interviewed by Roy C. Selby, MD (1991). Dr. Todd decided to enter medicine after serving as a tech sergeant in the Medical Corp of the Army. Along with his medical degree, he has a degree in English literature, a Masters in Liberal Arts, a Law Degree and a PhD in Renaissance History and Art. Dr. Todd documents his work with deep brain implant electrode in monkeys; the use of liquid silicone to cover aneurysms with gauze; early stereotactic use; evoked potentials; surgery for patients with Parkinson's disease and uncontrollable movements.
40.CHARLES E. TROLAND, MD interviewed by Harold Young, MD (1989). Dr. Troland describes his work with Dr. Woolsey (a neurophysiologist); his first surgical experience was with Dr. Dandy operating; Dr. Dandy's format of training; and anecdotes on the relationship between Drs. Cushing and Dandy.
104.A. ROY TYRER, MD interviewed by James T. Robertson, MD (1992). Dr. Tyrer relates stories of his internship during World War II and work with Drs. Gotten and Hawkes. He voices his beliefs regarding one's obligation to engage in civic and community activities and his work with the AMA. The founding of the Neurosurgical Society of America, the CNS and the development FIENS are discussed.
114.GEORGE B. UDVARHELYI, MD interviewed by Edward R. Laws, Jr., MD (1993). Dr. Udvarhelyi describes his medical school and fellowship experiences during World War II. His unusual career has brought him in contact with many of the extraordinary neuroscientists of our time including Dott, Foerster, Guiot, Jefferson Norlen, Olivecrona, Tonnis, Walker and Yasargil. He details his path to Johns Hopkins Medical School, his research and the evolution of his humanities program.
98.PROFESSOR HENK VERBIEST, MD interviewed by Roy C. Selby, MD (1991). Professor Verbiest discusses his work at the University of Utrecht in the Netherlands. He provides a unique view of being a doctor when Holland was occupied during World War II and how doctors were able to assist with "underground" activities. Professor Verbiest also furnishes information on the importance of the development of neuroscience nursing associations in Europe.
99.PROFESSOR SIEGFRIED VOGEL, MD interviewed by Edward R. Laws, Jr., MD (1991). Professor Vogel discusses his work at the Humbolt University in Berlin. He provides an historic profile of the advancements in medicine made in Germany during the 19th and 20th centuries. He documents the German method of specialty training which allows different tracks of development dependent on the motivations of the trainees. Professor Vogel talks about changes in medicine due to the reunification of Germany and the evolution of neurosurgery.
41.H. ALFONS WALDER, MD interviewed by W. Kemp Clark, MD (1988). Dr. Walder, trained at The Hague, Amsterdam, describes his interest in aneurysms; vascular surgery; his initial interest in cryosurgery for Parkinson's disease (and time spent with Dr. Cooper); arterio-venous malformations; and meningiomas. Dr. Walder tells of his training program which has trained neurosurgeons from all over the world.
78.A. EARL WALKER, MD interviewed by George Udvarhelyi, MD (1991). In this first interview, Dr. Walker describes his training experiences with Drs. Bailey, Bucy, Halstead and Penfield. He talks about working in Fulton's laboratory; his extended studies in Amsterdam and Brussels on subcortical lesions and electrical activity of the brain; and the origins of training FMGs after World War II.
79.A. EARL WALKER, MD interviewed by Sumio Uematsu, MD (1991). In this second interview, Dr. Walker provides information on the initiation of the ABNS and the ensuring standardization of training programs. Dr. Uematsu expresses the appreciation of foreign medical graduates for Dr. Walker's work in the providing training opportunities in the United States.
77. ARTHUR A. WARD, Jr., MD interviewed by George A. Ojemann, MD (1991). Dr. Ward talks about his training at Yale and the Montreal Neurological Institute; training with Penfield and research he performed with Bailey; the development of methods to control epilepsy and the use of stereotactic surgery; the year he spent in practice with Spurling; his appointment as the second clinician to the faculty of the University of Washington in 1948; his work on the editorial board of the Journal of Neurosurgery with Eisenhardt and Bucy; and his work with the ABNS, the Society of Neurological Surgeons and NINDS.
90. ROBERT WATSON, MD interviewed by Ray Jouett, MD (1991). Dr. Watson was the pioneer neurosurgeon in Arkansas. He describes his training at King's County Hospital in New York City. Dr. Watson provides in an insight to the practice of neurosurgery 50 years ago, detailing the lack of operating facilities, lengths of stay, no malpractice (the first policy he had cost $29 per year), the types of trauma cases seen then and dealing with rural patients through their own country doctors.
49.JAMES WATTS, MD interviewed by Harvey H. Ammerman, MD (1989). Dr. Watts provides information on the development of lobotomy and cerebral angiography; how lobotomy affects a patient's Rorschach interpretation rather than his IQ; and the "lively discussion" that took place during the 1950s regarding his work with Dr. Walter Freeman in psychosurgery.
47. FRANK WRENN, MD interviewed by W. Kemp Clark, MD (1989). Dr. Wrenn describes his career as a neurosurgeon in the Greenville, NC region. Issues discussed include neurosurgical manpower prior to 1970, assessment of quality of care and the future of neurosurgery.
43.GAZI YASARGIL, MD interviewed by R.M. Peardon Donaghy, MD (1988). Dr. Yasargil provides insight to his early education, prior to the start of World War II, which focused on neuroanatomy, biochemistry, psychiatry and general surgery. He studied neurosurgery with Professor Krayenbuhl in 1950. He describes direct puncture angiography of the carotid and vertebral arteries; endarterectomy; selective angiography; the use of iron filings and polymers for aneurysms; stereotactic surgery for extrapyramidal disease and epilepsy; and the history of the surgical microscope.
44.HARRY M. ZIMMERMAN, MD interviewed by Roy C. Selby, MD (1988). Dr. Zimmerman was awarded the first full professorship in neuropathology in America. He describes his training at Yale and his fellowship with Professor Spielmeyer in Munich. Dr. Zimmerman documents working with Drs. Cushing, Eisenhardt and Fulton. He also talks about visiting President Roosevelt in 1936; World War II; research while in the Navy on Guam on patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; Parkinson's and Parkinson-dementia complex on Guam; training many neuropathologists; the founding of Albert Einstein University; and Dr. Leo Davidoff.

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